on loan courtesy of:
Memo (copy) - to the president summarizing the situation in China, 1966
Memo (copy) - to the president's special assistant summarizing a meeting on China, 1967
--Lyndon Johnson Presidential Library and Museum, Austin, Texas
Transcript (copy) - of radio broadcast regarding Nixon's viewpoint on relations with Red China, 1971
--Richard Nixon Presidential Materials Staff, College Park, Maryland
Artifacts in plex wall case, on loan courtesy of:
Mao's return to power in 1966 put an end to "creeping capitalism."
To purify the revolution Mao appealed to young people, who nearly destroyed
Chinese society by pitting one faction against another, even children
against their parents. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese were executed,
sent to jail, or exiled to re-education camps. Yet, surprisingly, by the
early 1970s the political tide began to turn in favor of capitalistic
As Mao toppled Deng Xiaoping and others from power, his great "Cultural
Revolution" proceeded to devastate Chinese society. His call to young
people caused 11 million "Red Guards" to quit school and flock
to Beijing to attack Mao's rivals. Children turned in their parents. Teachers
were humiliated, beaten, even killed. Artists and writers were tortured.
Books, artwork, and records were destroyed.
When faced with imminent anarchy, the Peoples Liberation Army restored
order and sent the Red Guards back to communes all over China. This mass
communal effort was coined "The Green University," but with
minimal education beyond Mao's "little red book" of quotations,
these youth were later to be called "The Lost Generation."
After 1969, the emphasis was on calm reconstruction and a rebuilding
of the Communist Party. The Party also marked the rise of two opposing
forces: Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, and Premier Zhou Enlai.
Zhou forged an alliance with moderates within the civilian bureaucracy and the armed forces in 1971. And since China was continuing their ongoing dispute with Moscow, Zhou looked to improve relations with the West, particularly the United States. By then Mao's health was failing, and he viewed himself as an elder statesman rather than a policy-making activist. In 1972, Mao ultimately helped to raise "the Bamboo Curtain."
are currently exploring "The
Political Evolution of China"